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Bark: Thick, deeply furrowed, and dark brown or black on old plants, grooved when  young; branches smooth, shiny and grey  Leaves


Bark:

 Thick, deeply furrowed, and dark brown or black on old plants, grooved when 
young; branches smooth, shiny and grey 

Leaves:

 Usually bright green, sometime pale green, 2 – 4mm long, with keels on their 
upper side

Fruit:

 Dark grey or brown woody cones, brown and rounded, 12 – 20mm diameter, 
splitting when dry into 6 segments, each with pointed tip and wrinkled on their 
outside; occur singly or in small clusters along branches; dark brown, winged seeds

Flowering Period:

 Spring 

NOTES 


Occurs in northern and central parts of the coverage area. Resin and oil have 
medicinal properties. Black cypress pine is not harvested commercially in the local 
area. Distinguished from white cypress pine by its smaller size, brighter green 
appearance and keeled foliage. White cypress pine also has a longer ‘stalk’ in the 
middle of the open cones. 

GAS/OIL FIELD


Scotia, Arcadia, Fairview, Denison.
112

Fruit
Bark
Fertile branches
Callitris endlicheri
Grove of young plants
113

White Cypress Pine  


Callitris glaucophylla

OTHER COMMON NAMES


Cypress pine, white cypress, Murray pine.

HABITAT 


Occurs throughout the coverage area on flats, levees, dunes, undulating hills and 
sometimes steep ridge slopes with sandy, loamy or stony soils; forms pure stands 
or associated with numerous species including carbeen, poplar box, Baradine gum, 
ironwood, silver-leaved ironbark, narrow-leaved ironbark and smooth-barked apple.

DESCRIPTION 


Tree to 30m tall with spreading branches.

Bark:

 Dark brown, grey or almost black and furrowed; exudes yellowish gum  
from wounds 

Leaves:

 Dull greyish to bluish-green rounded leaves, pine smell when crushed

Fruit:

 Brown woody balls, about 20mm diameter, splitting open into segments; stalk 
inside open cone from 4 – 7mm long; winged seeds 

Flowering Period:

 August – November

NOTES 


Harvest of timber from this species is a major local industry. Timber is used for 
kindling, yard rails, furniture, house frames and flooring. Historically it was used for 
construction of slab huts. The wood is highly resistant to termite attack. It forms 
impenetrable thickets in the absence of fire, and such habitats often contain the 
rare golden-tailed gecko (Strophurus taenicauda). Plants in flower have a rusty-
brown flush. The seeds are eaten by sulphur-crested and Major Mitchell cockatoos 
(Lophochroa leadbeateri). The name Callitris columellaris used to be applied to this 
species.

GAS/OIL FIELD


All.
114

Fruit
Bark
Fertile branches
Callitris glaucophylla
Young tree
115

Wild Orange 


Capparis canescens 

OTHER COMMON NAMES 


Wild pomegranate, orangewood, dog caper.

HABITAT 


Confined to the northern half of coverage area on flats, hills and ridges, usually on 
sand, loam, gravel or light clay; often associated with silver-leaved ironbark, narrow-
leaved ironbark, white cypress pine, mountain coolibah, red bloodwood and Dallachy’s 
gum.

DESCRIPTION 


Small, untidy tree or shrub to 4m high; trunk sometimes with rose-thorn like spines; 
smaller branches with sharp pairs of brown curved spines about 5mm long.

Bark:

 Thick, brown and furrowed with corky appearance on older plants; smaller 
branches smooth

Leaves

: Dull green, stiff and leathery; young foliage broad and pointed, 20 – 40 mm 
long x 20 – 25mm wide, on short stalk 3 – 4mm long; older foliage longer than broad, 
oval, 50 – 90mm long x 30 – 50 mm wide, on stalk to 20mm long

Flowers:

 Cream, showy, about 50mm diameter, a mass of long stamens clustered in 
the middle of 4 hairy petals; buds heart-shaped with 4 prominent ridges on long stalk 
30 – 95mm long

Fruit

: Rounded, 25 – 75mm diameter, on long stalk 60 – 90mm long

Flowering Period:

 Summer – autumn

NOTES


Wild orange is highly susceptible to termite attack and large trees are uncommon.  
Wood boring caterpillars are extracted from the branches by cockatoos. Fruit and 
capers (flower buds) are edible.

GAS/OIL FIELD


Denison, Arcadia, Fairview.
116

Capparis canescens 
Fruit 
(photo: Russell Cumming)
Bark
Flower
Juvenile Leaves
Buds
117

Narrow-leaf Bumble Tree 


Capparis loranthifolia

OTHER COMMON NAMES 


Narrow-leaf bumble, bumble tree, wild orange, narrow-leaf wild orange.

HABITAT 


Alluvial flats, undulating plains and hill slopes with loam or clay soils; often 
associated with poplar box, myall, whitewood, boonaree, coolibah, belah, brigalow, 
white cypress pine and mulga.

DESCRIPTION 


Small tree or shrub with short, stocky trunk, to 8m high.

Bark:

 Rough, grey to brown and deeply furrowed, appearing corky with age

Leaves: 

Glossy to dull green, older leaves stiff and leathery, variable shape and 
dimensions, from 40 – 70mm long x 10 – 20mm wide, on stalks to 10mm long, 
midvein yellowish and raised on underside; new growth covered in short white hairs

Flowers

: Showy and fragile, cream, 4 petals with long plumes of protruding stamens, 
to 40mm diameter, on stalks to 20 – 45mm long

Fruit:

 Round, to 55mm diameter, either wrinkled or smooth, dull green or glossy, 
green turning brown to reddish-brown when dry

Flowering Period: 

November – January and sporadically after rain

NOTES 


Two varieties of this plant occur in the coverage area: one has narrow leaf blades 
and smooth fruit, while the other has broad leaves and larger, wrinkled fruit. The two 
varieties occasionally grow side by side.

GAS/OIL FIELD


All.
 
118

Capparis loranthifolia
Wrinkled fruit 
Bark
Flower
Smooth fruit
119

Bumble Tree 


Capparis mitchellii 

OTHER COMMON NAMES


Native orange, wild pomegranate, wild orange.

HABITAT 


Woodlands including poplar box, brigalow, belah and mulga on clay plains or on loamy 
red earths; also in softwood scrubs.

DESCRIPTION 


Small, rounded tree with short, solid trunk, to 8m high; young plants very spiny.

Bark:

 Furrowed brown 

Leaves:

 Glossy, dark green above, pale greyish-green below, 35 – 65mm long x 10 – 
35mm wide; broadest in middle, tapering at both ends; stems pale green and covered 
in short white hairs; young plants have shorter and broader leaves 

Flowers:

 Large, 4 cream petals each 20 – 30mm long, with protruding stamens, 
perfumed; buds smooth, on long stalk 30 – 40mm long, hairy, with pear-shaped end

Fruit:

 Smooth or warty, green, round, 40 – 70mm diameter; flesh is sweet-smelling, 
yellow and edible when ripe, and contains numerous flat brown seeds 

Flowering Period:

 Spring – summer and sporadically after rain

NOTES 


Leaves are palatable to livestock. Wood is used for carving and turning. Tends to be 
more common in the southern half of the coverage area and generally occurs as widely 
scattered individuals. The showy flowers are very brittle.

GAS/OIL FIELD


All.
120

Capparis mitchellii 
Fruit 
Bark
Flowers
Inside fruit
121

Leichhardt Bean  


Cassia brewsteri 

OTHER COMMON NAMES 


Bean tree.

HABITAT 


Occurs in northern part of coverage area on flats, undulating plains and ridges with a 
variety of soils from heavy clay to sandy loams and gravel; often with brigalow, lemon-
scented gum, yellow wood, bauhinia, narrow-leaved ironbark, red bloodwood, Dawson 
gum, silver-leaved ironbark and Dallachy’s gum.

DESCRIPTION 


Small, single stemmed tree or multi-stemmed rounded shrub, to 12m high. 

Bark:

 Dark grey; rough and furrowed; smooth and light grey on smaller branches and 
on trunks of younger plants

Leaves

: 2 – 4 pairs of leaflets on each branchlet; glossy, dark green above, lighter 
green below, new growth lime green, midvein prominent on underside of each leaflet; 
individual leaflets from 30 – 90mm long x 15 – 30mm wide on short stalk 

Flowers:

 Drooping clusters of yellow, orange or red flowers

Fruit:

 Straight, cylindrical pod, 200 – 500 mm long, dark brown or black with ribs

Flowering Period:

 September – November

NOTES


A common plant along roadsides north of Rolleston. The flowers are attractive and it 
is planted as an ornamental. 

GAS/OIL FIELD


Denison.
122

Cassia brewsteri 
Flowering branches
Bark
Flowers
123

Belah  


Casuarina cristata

OTHER COMMON NAMES 


Black oak, scrub she-oak.

HABITAT


Occurs throughout the coverage area on flats, undulating terrain and hill slopes with 
clay or loamy soils; grows in pure stands or is associated with brigalow, poplar box, 
myall, ooline, wilga, false sandalwood and vine thickets.

DESCRIPTION 


Tree to at least 20m tall; usually with straight trunk and dense crown.

Bark: 

Hard, thick, dark grey or brown, fissured; outer branches smooth and shiny

Leaves:

 Needle-like branchlets to 350mm long and <1mm diameter; whorls of 8 – 16 
leaf teeth 

Flowers:

 Male plants with rusty-brown spike at end of branchlets, to 30mm long; 
female trees have red globular flower heads, 3 – 4mm diameter, on stalk 5 – 7mm long 

Fruit:

 Woody cone, brown when dry, usually round, 10 – 20mm diameter, on stalk to 
5mm long; pointed valves contain pale brown winged seeds

Flowering Period:

 Summer – winter

NOTES


Timber is used for turning and was used historically for shingles, tool handles, trinkets 
and ornaments. Cones are used for craft. Highly regarded as firewood. It is a useful 
stock fodder during drought and a good windbreak tree. Glossy black-cockatoos 
(Calyptorhynchus lathami) extract seeds from the cones. Often heavy laden with 
needle-leaf mistletoe (Amyema cambagei). Branchlets are sometimes covered with 
soft, white, waxy lumps which are made by tiny psyllid bugs. Nitrogen is fixed by the 
roots.

GAS/OIL FIELD


All.
124

Casuarina cristata
Fruit 
Bark
Female flowers
Male flowers
125

River She-oak  


Casuarina cunninghamiana

OTHER COMMON NAMES 


River oak, creek oak.

HABITAT


Widespread but confined to watercourse channels and banks on various substrates 
including sand, loam, gravel and clay; commonly occurs with river red gum, rough-
barked apple, Queensland blue gum, weeping bottlebrush and western tea-tree.

DESCRIPTION 


Tree to 35m tall with girth to 1.5m.

Bark:

 Dark grey or brown, hard and furrowed 

Leaves:

 Fine, greyish-green, drooping branchlets, 0.5mm diameter, 100 – 250mm 
long; leaf teeth in whorls of 6 – 8

Flowers:

 Male plants have rusty-brown flower spikes to 30mm long at the end of the 
branchlets; female flower heads are red, 10mm diameter, and positioned along the 
branches

Fruit:

 Usually a round, brown, woody cone, 5 – 12mm high x 5 – 8mm wide, with 
numerous pointed valves each containing a single pale, papery seed

Flowering Period:

 March – October

NOTES 


Grows taller than any other Australian she-oak. Historically used for bullock yokes and 
shingles in the Injune area. Wood is used for turning and making ornaments. Foliage 
is browsed by livestock. Seedlings proliferate after major floods.

GAS/OIL FIELD


All.
126

Fruit
Bark
Female flowers
Casuarina cunninghamiana
Male flowers
127

128

Limebush  


Citrus glauca

OTHER COMMON NAMES


Desert lime, wild lime.

HABITAT


Occurs throughout the coverage area on heavy or light clay and loamy red earth; 
associated with poplar box, myall, silver-leaved ironbark, brigalow, belah or in open 
downs country.

DESCRIPTION 


Small tree with dense, rounded crown to 8m high; young plants have long thorns on 
stems and branches.

Bark:

 Dark brown or grey, hard, deeply grooved; outer branches smooth, grey

Leaves:

 Dull green, to 60mm long x 5 – 8mm wide; oil glands obvious when held to 
light; tip rounded with shallow notch; citrus smell when crushed

Flowers:


 
Cream, with 4 or 5 petals; about 15 mm diameter; sweetly perfumed

Fruit:

 Round or oblong, 15 – 20mm long x 15mm wide, yellow when ripe, fleshy and 
dimpled 
F

lowering Period:

 August – October 

NOTES 


Suckers profusely and young plants form dense thickets. Fruit edible and is popular 
among the Australian bush food industry. Flowers are attractive to butterflies, bees, 
flies and wasps. Foliage is browsed by livestock and the fruit are eaten by sheep 
Previously known as Eremocitrus glauca.

GAS/OIL FIELD


All

Fruit
Bark
Flowers
Grove of young trees
Citrus glauca
129

130

Spotted and Lemon-scented Gum    

Corymbia citriodora

HABITAT 


Both varieties are found in the northern half of the coverage area on hills and ridges,  
in gorges and sometimes along watercourses and flats; the substrate is usually sandy, 
loamy or rocky; they form pure stands or are associated with narrow-leaved ironbark, 
dusky-leaved ironbark, lancewood and zamia.

DESCRIPTION


Tree to at least 30m high with long, shaft-like trunk and dense crown.

Bark:

 Pale grey, peeling off in summer to reveal cream, orange or pink new bark;  
spotted gum is usually heavily dimpled, while lemon-scented gum is smooth or has 
only a few dimples

Leaves:


 
Green, same colour both sides, 120 – 180mm long x 20 – 30mm wide

Flowers:

 Cream, to 15mm diameter; buds 11mm high x 7mm wide

Fruit:


 
Woody, urn-shaped, grey when dry, covered in warts, 15mm high (including 
stalk to 8mm) x 11mm wide, valves deeply enclosed within capsule

Flowering Period:


 
April – November

NOTES 


Lemon-scented and spotted gums are valued for their timber and are harvested for 
poles. The leaves of lemon-scented gum (
Corymbia citriodora citriodora
) smell strongly 
of citronella when crushed. Spotted gum (
C. citriodora variegata
) looks similar; however, 
its bark usually has more dimples. The sap is a favoured food of the yellow-bellied 
glider 
(Petaurus australis)
. Previous names applied to these trees include 
Eucalyptus 
maculata, E. citriodora
 and 
Corymbia maculata

GAS/OIL FIELD


Arcadia, Fairview, Denison, Scotia.

Buds
Bark (spotted gum)
Flowers
Fruit
Bark (lemon-scented gum)
Corymbia citriodora
131

132

Clarkson’s Bloodwood 


 
Corymbia clarksoniana 

OTHER COMMON NAMES 


Inland bloodwood, long-fruited bloodwood, small-flowered bloodwood.

HABITAT 


Occurs throughout the coverage area on sandy flats, levees and hills with loamy soils; 
associated with white cypress pine, silver-leaved ironbark, bull oak, Baradine red gum, 
ironwood, carbeen and smooth-barked apple.

DESCRIPTION 


Tree to at least 20m high. 

Bark:

 Grey and fissured into fibrous, block-like segments, reddish-brown underneath; 
rough bark extends to the small branches

Leaves: 

Dark green above, lighter green below, 90 – 150mm long (including stalk  
10 – 20mm long) x 20 – 25mm wide

Flowers:


 
White or yellowish-cream, to 25mm diameter, in clusters of 2 – 4, sweetly 
perfumed; buds yellowish-cream, pear-shaped, cap with short point, 15mm long 

Fruit



Green turning brown when dry, woody, variable in shape, usually longer than 
broad, 20 – 30mm long x 15mm wide; red-brown winged seeds

Flowering Period:


 
February – April 

NOTES 


Flowers are attractive to insects. Hollows are used by possums, gliders and nesting 
birds. Timber is sometimes used for fencing. Formerly known as 
Eucalyptus clarksoniana
.

GAS/OIL FIELD


All.
 

Fruit
Bark
Flowers
Corymbia clarksoniana
133

134

Dallachy’s Gum  


Corymbia dallachyana

OTHER COMMON NAMES 


Ghost gum. 

HABITAT 


Confined to the extreme northern part of the coverage area where it occurs on flats, 
levees and ridges usually with loamy or gravelly soil; associated species include 
ironbarks, poplar box, ironwood and Clarkson’s bloodwood.

DESCRIPTION 


Tree to 20m tall, straight trunk often with crooked branches.

Bark:

 Light grey or cream, smooth and bare or having flaky, brown bark at the base; 
rough bark can extend several metres up the trunk of younger trees

Leaves:

 Green, thin and wavy, 100 – 180mm long x 15 – 40mm wide, on stalk  
10 – 20mm long, prominent yellowish midvein; foliage is broader and brighter green 
on saplings 

Flowers:

 Cream, 10 – 15mm diameter; buds bluntly domed 

Fruit:

 Dark grey or brown, cylindrical, thin walled, can be crushed between fingers 
easily when dry, 8 – 15mm long x 8 – 10mm wide, on stalk 5 – 6mm long

Flowering Period:

 November – February 

NOTES 


Restricted to the Emerald-Springsure area. Distinguished from carbeen (
Corymbia 
tessellaris
) by its much paler trunk (which normally does not have a stocking of bark 
except around the base) and broad, lime green, wavy leaves on young plants. 

GAS/OIL FIELD


Denison.
 

Fruit
Bark
Flowers
(photo: Russell Cumming)
Leaves
Corymbia dallachyana
135

136

Red Bloodwood  


Corymbia erythrophloia 

OTHER COMMON NAMES


Gum-topped bloodwood, variable bloodwood.

HABITAT 


Occurs in northern and central parts of the coverage area on flats, undulating terrain 
and hills with loam or clay soils, often derived from basalt; commonly associated with 
mountain coolibah and narrow-leaved ironbark. 

DESCRIPTION 


Tree to 12m high; often with short trunk.

Bark:

 Grey, rough, fissured into small flaky patches; grey bark flakes off to reveal 
reddish, brown or orange underneath; bark smooth on smaller branches

Leaves:


 
Green, same colour both sides, 70 – 180mm long x 15 – 25mm wide, on 
reddish or yellowish-brown stalk 10 – 15mm long, prominent yellow midvein

Flowers



Creamy white, to 20mm diameter; buds pear-shaped, yellowish-cream, 6 – 
11mm long x 4 – 7mm wide, on short stalk 2 – 3mm long

Fruit



Brown when dry, woody, urn-shaped, 10 – 20mm long x 9 – 15mm wide,  
thick-walled with heavy rim; reddish-brown winged seeds

Flowering Period:

 February – April

NOTES 


Flowers are attractive to insects. Formerly known as 
Eucalyptus erythrophloia
.

GAS/OIL FIELD


Arcadia, Fairview, Denison, Roma, Scotia.
 

Fruit
Bark
Flowers
Corymbia erythrophloia
137

138

Carbeen  


Corymbia tessellaris

OTHER COMMON NAMES


Moreton Bay ash.

HABITAT


Distributed throughout the coverage area on flats, levees, dunes and undulating 
terrain with deep sandy or loamy soils; associated with white cypress pine, poplar box, 
ironwood, silver-leaved ironbark, Clarkson’s bloodwood and Baradine red gum.

DESCRIPTION 


Tree to 30m tall. 

Bark:


 
Dark grey, rough stocking, fissured into rectangular segments at base and 
usually extending several metres up the trunk; smooth and light grey to cream above 

Leaves:


 
Dull green, thin, 50 – 110mm long x 6 – 12mm wide, with distinct yellowish 
midvein, same colour both sides

Flowers:


 
Cream, 10 – 15mm diameter; buds 10mm long x 5mm wide, bluntly domed 

Fruit:


 
Brown, cylindrical or barrel-shaped, thin walled, shiny, 8 – 12mm long x  
5 – 8mm wide, on stalk about 6mm long

Flowering Period:


 
November – January 

NOTES 


Tool handles, road and rail bridges have been made from the timber. Sometimes used 
for wood turning and fencing. Suckers readily and often forms small groves. Bark peels 
in late spring/summer revealing attractive bright cream or pinkish new bark. Formerly 
known as 
Eucalyptus tessellaris
.
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